Зарубіжний досвід організації та діяльності наукових шкіл (на прикладі Польщі та Білорусі)





Thearticle analyzes the experience of the Republics of Poland and Belarus concerning the organization and features of scientific / scientific and pedagogical schools.Common and distinctive featuresbetween Polish, Belarusian and Ukrainian scientific schools are specified; the characteristics of the leading schools of Poland and scientific schools of prominent universities of Belarus are focused on.Athorough theoretical analysis of national source baseas to the principles of functioning and contentof the definition «scientific school», characterized with some certain features in accordance with social, political as well as changes in science and education, is adduced; the phenomenological essence of the studied concept; the category «scientific and pedagogical school» as an independent unit is singled out.Thecommoncharacteristicfeatureofboth Ukrainian and Polish, Belarusian science is the disambiguationof the interpretation of «scientific / scientific and pedagogical school» phenomenon itself. However, its common features are: obligatory presence of the founder – an outstanding scientist, who is the leader of the school; the fundamental progressive idea, the leader is working on; a group of like-minded people, supporting their leader.

Asconcerning «scientific and pedagogical school» concept, Ukrainian and Polish science is characterized by understanding that these schoolsdo the research of Pedagogy as science in general in contrast to Belarusian one, where diversified scientific schoolsare referred to as scientific and pedagogical ones.

The experience of Polish «intercultural studies»-schools, that act on the territory of border areas, needs a more detailed study and is important for a multinational Ukrainian society during the period of reforming the educational sector, for taking into consideration the needs of national minorities, but with the maximum preservation of Ukrainian identity.

The experience of the country of the near abroad – the Republic of Belarus is no less valuable for the investigation because the Soviet period of the creation and development of scientific schools was the same for our countries.Thedifferencefrom the specifics of Ukrainian scientific schools’ activity is the fact that Belarusian ones are inextricably connected with the activity of the Higher Attestation Commission.