Польська мова як посередник проникнення гунґаризмів в українську мову

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DOI:

https://doi.org/10.35433/2220-4555.18.2020.fil-1

Анотація

The article deals with the question of ancient contacts of Hungarians with the East Slavs. The article provides examples of ancient East Slavisms, which have gained a foothold in the Hungarian language. It is emphasized that the East Slavs and Hungarians borrowed new concepts and words as a result of geographical, social and economic relations. With the formation of the Hungarian state, the Hungarian language had a significant influence on neighboring East Slavic dialects, especially those with which it had a geographical proximity, in particular Transcarpathian.

The incorporation of Hungarian lexical units in the Ukrainian language system was mostly direct, but in some cases the influence of the Polish language was observed. We aim to present the Hungarianisms, in the process of whose incorporating into Ukrainian the Polish language played the role of a mediating language. A group of words of Hungarian origin was identified, which entered the system of the Russian language through the mediation of Polish. Most of the investigated lexical units borrowed from the Hungarian language were archaized or belong to historicisms.

Антал [antal] in Ukrainian and Polish are direct borrowings from the Hungarian language (the first fixation in both languages was made in the 18th century); from Polish the word entered the Russian language. Words like гусар, карваш, катанка, коч, кунтуш [контуш] and шипош [husar, karvash, katanka, koch, kuntush/kontush, shyposh] entered Ukrainian through the Polish language language. It is supposed that the form of пушта [pushta] entered the East Slavic languages through Polish (it is a borrowing from the standard Polish language).

The presence of the consonant ш [sh] in the word шабля [shablia] is explained by the influence of the Polish language. The chronology allows suggesting that the word шишак [shyshak] has entered the Ukrainian language, as well as Russian, from Polish language. The Hungarian kecsege (Ukrainian чечуга (чечура) [chechuha/chechura]) entered the lexical system of the Ukrainian, Russian and Polish languages through the Romanian language.

The Polish mediation of incorporation is supposed concerning the words гайдук, гуляш, палаш, шалаш [шелаш] and шерега [haiduk, huliash, palash, shalash/shelash, shereha] in the lexical system of the Russian language, in the Ukrainian language гайдук, гуляш, палаш and шерега [haiduk, huliash, palash, shereha] are direct borrowings from the Hungarian language. Салаш [salash] could enter from both Hungarian and Romanian. Гарцювати [hartsiuvaty] is borrowed from the West Slavic languages, supposedly from Polish.

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